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Most Important Topics for IAS Prelims Exam 2019

Most Important Topics for IAS Prelims Exam 2019

No more than two months from now, the UPSC( Union Public Service Commission) shall be conducting the IAS examination on June 2, 2019. With the students giving the studies the final touches in the form of polishing their concepts through revision and making the much necessary notes for the final day, it shall be an added bonus for the students to be exposed to some of the most important topics that are most likely to be asked in the examination. The list of the topics given below can enable you to prepare two-thirds of the syllabus of the preliminary examination and majority of the questions in The Mains have been asked from the topics. Considering the time constraint, it is highly imperative that the candidate focusses on significant topics on the basis of the questions asked in the previous years on a repetitive basis. With the focus on these topics, the candidates can aim to target the IAS exam with confidence.In order to prepare for the examination, the candidate has to prepare smartly rather than exhaustive. The General Studies has questions on topics like Current events of national and international importance.
One of the most critical strategies is to analyze the trends in the examination pattern for the past years. This would enable the students to prepare smartly on the basis of reference to the syllabus and the previous year's question papers. Examining the above two factors revealed that most of the questions in the examination are closely related to the events that have occurred in the recent past. Besides, the candidates should pay attention to the topics associated with Indian Polity, Socio-Economic, Geographical, Environmental, Historical and Cultural aspects of India and general Science. For the convenience of the candidates, we are preparing a short list of the useful topics that would come in handy for both the Prelims and The Mains.
  • History of India and Indian national movement.
  • Indian and World Geography
  • Physical, social, economic geography of India and the world
  • Indian Polity and governance
  • Constitution, political system, Panchayati Raj, public policy, Rights issues, etc.
  • Economic and social development
  • Sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives etc.
  • General issues: Environmental ecology, biodiversity and climate change that do not require subject specialization.
  • General science.
The analysis of the previous year's General Studies papers has revealed that the questions from the History section are not many. But that in no way should give an impression of History being an insignificant entity for the examination. As a test seeker, one is expected to have a respectable coverage and understanding of the topics such as Modern Indian history, culture and medieval periods are important to study. Some other topics that are important are:
a) Occupational caste
b) Tribe and nomad
c) Rock-cut monuments
d) Governor Generals and viceroys
e) Medieval dictionary
f) Freedom struggle and important movements
g) Ancient times taxation and administration
h) Land reforms and revenue system
i) Important dynasties in medieval India
In order to prepare effectively for the Geography portion, the candidates should have a basic clarity about the Universe, Solar System, Planets and basis phenomenon such as change of seasons, Eclipses and Equinoxes. The UPSC exam provides coverage of both the Indian and The World Geography. The candidates need to be abreast with the recent developments in the world and are updated with the current knowledge is of great importance. The topics that hold importance are:
a) Floods, earthquakes and cyclones
b) Temperature and precipitation
c) Location of countries between seas
d) Ocean Currents
e) Climatic conditions in different regions
f) Westerlies, National highways and other infrastructure
g) Different types of soil, their conservation methods
h) National parks, wetlands, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves
i) Atmosphere
j) Natural vegetation
k) Flora and fauna
l) Rivers in India and their protection
m) Geographical region and regions
n) National Green tribunal, La Nina and El Nino
Indian Polity is one of the important topics for all the 3 stages of the Civil services exam. The Indian Polity holds vital importance from the point of view of the eventual services that a candidate is supposed to join. Indian Polity plays a vital role in the life of a civil servant. As the case with previous topics, the Indian Polity is blended with current affairs. Some of the topics relating to the latest launched schemes by the government, the latest developments in the constitution and the bills which are important for polity which can be covered from current affairs sources.
Besides some of the other areas of Interest are:
a) Judiciary
B) Panchayati Raj and PESA 1996
c) Committees of the parliament
d) Power distribution  between union and states
e) Indian Membership in Regional Establishments
f) Parliament and State Legislature
g) President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Speaker, Governor, CAG and attorney general
h) Forest Rights ACT 2006
i) Passing of bills (ordinary and money)
j) Different parliamentary proceedings
k) Non-proliferation treaty and MTCR
l) Directive principles and fundamental duties
Rated as one of the most integral parts of the UPSC syllabus and should encompass related aspects from the section of current affairs. With the figures changing on a daily basis, it is important that one understands the foundations of the subject. The clarity on what matters the most is important. Economics being a dynamic field, one has to be continuously in sync with the subject of current affairs
Some of the terms and topics should be studied in detail
a) Depreciation and Appreciation
b) Fiscal deficit and Budget
c) Taxes and reforms
d) National schemes and programmes
e) Basic terms like growth rate, national income- GDP, GVA etc.,
f) Economic survey, convertibility of rupee, monetary policy and its measures (CRR/SLR)
g) Finance Commission and recent recommendations
h) Unemployment and poverty in India
i) Supply and demand for money
j) Demonetization
k) Banking systems and based III
l) Inflation rates
m) Demographic transition.
There are many a question asked from this section from the last so many years, which make it extremely important. One needs to have clarity about the fundamental concepts of the subjects. The topic is a global one and the candidate is expected to have a knowledge of the initiatives around the world for the protection, conservation and preservation of the environment. The information can be gathered from either magazines or Newspapers.
The main topics that a candidate needed to concentrate  are:
a) Eco- friendly technologies
b) Agriculture, crops, drainage and irrigation
c) International treaties, organizations and meetings focused on the environment
d) International reports and list
e) Recent government reports on the environment
f) National schemes for agriculture, irrigation
The other main topics are:
I) Ecology Based: Familiarity with concepts like Ecosystem, Keystone species, Niche, Food chain, Food web etc.
II) Biodiversity Based: Flora and Fauna, endangered species, wildlife parks, sanctuaries, bio-diversity hot-spots, biosphere reserves, IUCN, summits etc.
iii) Climate change/Environment degradation Based: Familiarity topics like global warming, ozone hole depletion, acid rain etc. Also note down important points, when you hear news related to conventions or protocols like Ramsar Convention, Montreal Protocol, Kyoto Protocol etc.
The students are required to have a basic understanding of the subject without going in-depth. The student is expected to have knowledge about the latest developments happening in the field of science. Newspapers readings are sufficient to cover for this section of the exam. 
The other topics of that need to be covered are :
a) Public health focussed Government schemes
b) Recent Developments in the field of Genetics(Stem Cells)
c) Medicine and Public Health
d) Food and Chemicals
e) Gravitation 
f) Classification of Plants and Animals such as knowledge about Kingdom, Phylum, Genus and species
g) Light and Matter
h) Crops, nanotechnology, communication technology
i) Renewable sources of energy and eco-friendly technology
j) Nuclear energy, Work and energy
k) Missiles, space crafts and satellites
l) ICT, diseases and causes
Besides the candidates are advised to solve previous year papers and Test series to get an understanding of examination pattern and the questions asked.
The General Studies Paper II is a test of the candidate's Analytical and Logical Reasoning skills. The section mainly concentrates on mental ability questions relating to:
a) Comprehension
b) Interpersonal skills including communication skills
c) Logical reasoning and analytical ability
d) Decision making and problem-solving
e) General mental ability
f) Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level)
g) Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. - Class X level)
h) English Language Comprehension skills (Basics of Class X)

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