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17 April 2023: Giant Magnetoresistance

Context:

Researchers discovered that at ambient temperature, graphene exhibits an unusual Giant magnetoresistance (GMR).

What are Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) and Magnetoresistance?

  • A material’s propensity to alter the value of its electrical resistance in the presence of an external magnetic field is known as magnetoresistance.
  • When a magnetic field is applied to thin films made up of alternate layers of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic material, it causes a significant change in the electrical resistance known as giant magnetoresistance (GMR).
  • Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg received the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering the GMR.

About the study:

  • The graphene-based device’s measured magnetoresistance was “almost 100 times higher than that observed in other known semimetals in this magnetic field range.”
  • The researchers attributed this to the existence of a “neutral” plasma and the mobility of the electrons.

GMR applications

  • In computers, biosensors, automotive sensors, micro-electromechanical systems, and medical imagers, it is employed in hard disk drives and magneto-resistive RAM.
  • Particularly for sensing magnetic fields, GMR-based equipment is used.

Graphene

  • An allotrope of carbon called graphene is made up of one layer of atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice.
  • It possesses the world’s thinnest two-dimensional material, the highest tensile strength, electrical conductivity, and transparency.
  • In light of the fact that it barely absorbs 2% of light, it is practically completely transparent.
  • Because of its enormous promise in the fields of energy and medicine, graphene is also referred to as a wonder substance.

The uses of graphene

  • Electronics: It could lead to the development of the next generation of electronics, including faster transistors and bendable phones, among other things.
  • Medical: Bio: Due to the special characteristics of graphene, innovative biomedical uses are possible. better brain penetration, targeted medicine delivery, etc.
  • Battery: A standard lithium-ion battery’s lifespan could be greatly extended with graphene, allowing for faster charging and longer-lasting batteries that can contain more power.
  • Sensors: Extremely sensitive graphene sensors could find tiny harmful particles, protecting potentially hazardous surroundings.
  • Graphene Membranes: When it comes to gases and liquids, graphene oxide membranes can create an impeccably tight seal. The hardest gas to block, helium, has even been shown to be stopped by them.