CONTEXT: India concluded its eighth term in the UNSC at the end of December 2022 .
Major issues during this term
- India focused on maritime security, terrorism, UN peacekeeping, reformed multilateralism, and the global south.
- India chaired three important committees: the Taliban Sanctions Committee, the Libyan Sanctions Committee, and the Counter-Terrorism Committee.
- For the first time, the Indian Prime Minister chaired a UNSC meeting on maritime security.
OLD CONFLICTS FESTERED AND THE ADDITION OF NEW CONFLICTS
- Myanmar, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Mali, Syria, Palestine, Yemen, Haiti, Libya, the Sahel, and Ukraine were in focus.
- The council stood polarized, unable to act decisively. India strived to bring them on the same page.
RESOLUTION ON MYANMAR
- There was a military takeover in Myanmar. On this move, the P-5 members were pulling in opposite directions, while the ASEAN counselled caution.
- India ensured balanced council pronouncements, which finally resulted in the resolution of Myanmar.
KEY THEATRES AND TERROR
- The Taliban seized power in Afghanistan in August 2021.
- India was able to steer the negotiations, which resulted in the UNSC resolution laying down benchmarks on stopping cross-border terrorism from Afghan soil, protecting the rights of women, children, and minorities, ensuring an inclusive government, etc.
- With the UN secretariat and the West trying to engage the Taliban without success, the UNSC resolution under the Indian presidency continued to be the best course of action.
India’s Independent INDEPENDENT on the Ukraine Conflict
- India’s call for dialogue and peace struck a chord with many other developing countries since they themselves were affected by unilateral sanctions. India spoke out against such sanctions, inter alia, on oil, food, and fertilisers.
INDIA ENHANCED FOCUS ON TERRORISM
- India, as chair of the UNSC Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), brought the CTC meeting to India in October 2022.
- India attempted to list terrorists, and the approval to list the deputy chief, Abdul Rehman Makki, was signed by the UNSC.
- India has been the largest contributor of UN peacekeepers, including as a pioneer in women’s peacekeeping.
- It launched the UNITE Aware technology platform to strengthen real-time protection of peacekeepers.
- United Nations Security Council
- The Security Council, the United Nations’ principal crisis-management body,