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25 March 2023: IPCC SYNTHESIS REPORT

CONTEXT

Intergovernmental  Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the Synthesis report for the Sixth Assessment cycle.

  • The report stressed the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and gave a call for mainstream effective and equitable action for a sustainable future.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE 

  • IPCC was created in 1988 by the combined efforts of two bodies, the World Meteorological Organisation(WMO) and the United Nation Environment Programme(UNEP).
  • The objective of the IPCC is to provide scientific information to governments at all levels,  that they can use to develop climate policies.
  • IPCC reports are also an important source of  international climate change negotiations. 
  • The IPCC is an organisation of various governments which are members of the United Nations or WMO. The IPCC currently has 195 members.

RESEARCH AND REPORTS OF IPCC 

  • A number of experts from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC. 
  • IPCC authors assess the thousands of scientific papers published each year to provide a comprehensive summary of what is known about the sources of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and how adaptation, as well as mitigation, can reduce those risks. 
  • The IPCC does not conduct its own research.

WHAT DOES THE SYNTHESIS REPORT SAY?

  • This report is the compilation of the main findings of the IPCC’s Sixth Report assessment, based on the results from three working  groups (WG)
  1. WG I  examined the physical science basis of climate change 
  2. WG  II evaluated the impacts, adaptation as well as vulnerability 
  3. WG  III evaluated the mitigation process.
  • The report talks about the urgency of the need to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and thereby limit rising global temperatures by 1.5 degrees celsius from pre-industrial levels as also decided by the Paris Agreement.
  • Noting the impact of the rise in temperatures, the report states that such events are more susceptible to food insecurity and water shortages with vulnerable populations facing the effect of climate change.
  • The report also emphasised on the economic loss and damages incurred due to climate change.
  • The report added that Climate Justice is crucial because those who contributed least to climate change are being disproportionately affected.

IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA 

  • India’s priority should be to minimise damage in terms of lives, livelihood and biodiversity and speed up equitable action and adaptation. 
  • India should an approach emphasising climate-resilient development 
  • The report said that India, being developing can lower its per-capita emissions through energy efficiency policies 
  • Also, India can decarbonise the energy sector by using cleaner alternatives such as solar and renewable energy.

WAY AHEAD 

  • The report suggests climate-resilient development that will not only mitigate the effects of climate change but also provides wider benefits. 
  • Access to clean energy, improving air quality, increasing employment opportunities etc. are among the report’s recommended goals to help adapt to climate change.