Neolithic Discoveries in Mauxi Village


  • Mauxi (Mhaus) village in the Sattari taluka of Goa has emerged as a hotbed of neolithic discoveries.


  • The 11th edition of the Cultural and Heritage Walk, also known as Parikrama, is organised inside the Ravalnath Temple.
  • The Lord Shiva is a form of the universal god worshipped by Hindus. He is also called Shivnath Ravalnath in Konkani as a mark of reverence.
  • The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has confirmed that the Ancient rock carvings that were found etched into the metabasalt rock along the dry riverbed of the Zarme River some two decades ago belong to the Neolithic period.
  • The carvings were initially discovered by residents some 20 years ago and tell a lot about the early inhabitants of the region.
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)

– ASI is the premier organization for the archaeological research and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation under the Ministry of Culture.

– Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI.

– It regulates all archaeological activities in the country as per the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, of 1958. It also regulates the Antiquities and Art Treasure Act, of 1972.

Major Findings

  • The carvings are of animals such as zebus, bulls, and antelopes, alongside footprints and cupules.
  • The circular cavities on the rock surface signify the community’s involvement in discovering historical artefacts.
  • Some 20 rock etchings, showcasing the use of the bruising technique, have been identified in this region, with tools from the same period found on the riverbed. This validates the site’s historical significance.
  • Another worth-mentioning feature is a rock done with cupules, revered outside the Puravati Temple.
  • Initially interpreted as representing a star constellation with 27 cupules, further research revealed 31 cupules, which made people curious about their significance but the exact purpose of these remains unknown.


  • The ASI has confirmed its Neolithic origins, as this period signifies an important period when humans started domesticating cattle.
  • A carving at Mauxi depicting a trident—a symbol associated with the Iron Age—suggests the site’s enduring significance through various historical epochs.
  • The presence of the Dhawad community, early settlers, and ironsmiths adds another layer to the historical narrative, although eventually displaced by new settlers.
The Stone Age

– The Stone Age is a prehistoric period characterized by the use of stone tools. It’s typically divided into three major periods: the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic, based on technological advancements, cultural developments, and changes in human societies.

a. Paleolithic Age: Also known as the Old Stone Age, this period began around 2.6 million years ago with the earliest known stone tool usage by hominids such as Homo habilis. It lasted until around 10,000 BCE. During this time, humans were primarily hunter-gatherers, relying on stone tools for tasks such as hunting, butchering, and processing food.

b. Mesolithic Age: This transitional period occurred roughly between 10,000 BCE and 5,000 BCE, depending on the region. It was characterized by the development of more specialized tools, as well as adaptations to changing environments and the domestication of certain plants and animals.

c. Neolithic Age: The New Stone Age began around 12,000 years ago and ended in various parts of the world between 4500 BCE and 2000 BCE. It is distinguished by the widespread adoption of agriculture and the domestication of animals, leading to settled communities, the development of pottery, weaving, and more complex social structures.

d.The transition to agriculture revolutionized human societies, allowing for the rise of civilizations.