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13 April 2023: The Large Hadron Collider

Context:

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now being warmed up for its third season of operations.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

  • The largest research experiment in the world, the LHC, collides extremely fast hadrons, which are small particles. It accelerates the particles, which are protons, in a very long, circular pipe.
  • The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) constructed it.
  • The Standard Model, a mathematical framework used by physicists to describe all of the known fundamental particles in the universe and the forces through which they interact, is what the LHC is intended to test.
  • The LHC investigates the tiniest known components of matter. It uses the magnetic field of superconducting electromagnets to steer two proton beams that are fired in opposite directions at almost the speed of light.
  • The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the greatest worldwide scientific partnerships in history, has the same objectives as ATLAS but uses a different magnet-system design. ATLAS is the largest general-purpose particle detector experiment at the LHC.

‘God Particle’ and Prior Findings

  • On July 4, 2012, ten years prior, CERN researchers made the public announcement that they had discovered the Higgs boson, also known as the “God particle,” during the LHC’s initial run.
  • The fundamental force-carrying particle of the Higgs field, which gives other particles their mass, is known as the Higgs boson.
  • The Higgs boson was discovered by Peter Higgs and François Englert, who together received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • examined the properties of unusual particles such as pentaquarks and tetraquarks to see if they match theoretical predictions.
  • The protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei are formed by the combination of quarks, which are elementary particles that often combine in groups of two and three to form hadrons.

 CERN

  • The largest nuclear and particle physics laboratory in the world is the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
  • Geneva, close to the Swiss-French border, is home to CERN.
  • Its 23 members are countries.
  • India joined CERN as an associate member in 2016.
  • An important part of the ALICE experiment, which is specifically designed to seek for and investigate quark-gluon plasma (QGP), was played by Indian scientists.