Infrastructure and Connectivity along LAC in Arunachal Pradesh


  • Recently, India has accelerated the efforts to improve infrastructure and connectivity along the Line of Actual Control with China.
Arunachal Pradesh

– It is the 24th state of the Indian Union and is located in the northeastern part of the country.

– It is bordered by Bhutan to the west, Myanmar to the east, China to the north and northeast, and the plains of Assam to the south.

– Flora and Fauna: The state bird is the Hornbill, the state animal is the Mithun (Bos Frontalis), and the state flower is the Foxtail Orchid (Rhynchostylis Retusa).

– Highest Peak: The highest peak in the state is Kangto, which stands at 7,090 metres.

Enhanced Connectivity and Development

  • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Arunachal Pradesh, a contested border area between India and China, has seen significant developments in infrastructure and connectivity in recent years.

Boosting Connectivity:

  • The Indian Army has been instrumental in connecting remote areas of the state, speeding up efforts to improve infrastructure along the LAC.
  • It has both military and civilian advantages, boosting tourism and quickening the Army’s movements.
  • The work on the 2,400-km-long Trans Arunachal Highway is nearing completion, and the focus of infrastructure development has shifted to the trans-frontier highway, which will connect all the valleys in the state.
  • It aims to significantly reduce time and effort for both military and general movements, especially in eastern Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Nechiphu Tunnel: It is the 500-metre-long Nechiphu Tunnel on Balipara-Chariduar-Tawang Road in Arunachal Pradesh. This tunnel, along with the under-construction Sela Tunnel, will provide all-weather connectivity to the strategic Tawang Region.
Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

– It was formed in 1960 to coordinate the speedy development of an adequate road communication network of roads in the country’s North and North-Eastern border regions.

– It works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence.

Major Functions:

– Support the armed forces to meet their strategic needs by committed, dedicated and cost-effective development and sustenance of the infrastructure.

– Achieve international levels of quality excellence and time consciousness in a diversified sphere of construction activity cost-effectively.

– Optimise potential and expertise through increased involvement in agency, transnational and national development projects.

Enhancing Surveillance:

  • In the last few years, the Army has significantly upgraded firepower and infrastructure along the LAC in the Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The pace of capability and infrastructure development in the rest of the state has significantly increased in the last few years.
  • This includes road infrastructure, bridges, tunnels, habitat and other storage facilities, aviation facilities, and upgradation of communications and surveillance.

Associated Challenges

  • Geographical Challenges: The areas along the LAC in Arunachal Pradesh are characterised by high-altitude terrain and sparse population.
  • It makes infrastructure development and connectivity a challenging task.
  • Educational Limitations: The remote areas along the LAC have limited access to quality education.
  • It is a significant challenge as it affects the quality of life for the residents of these areas.
  • Financial Constraints: The cost of infrastructure development in these remote and difficult terrains is high.
  • It poses a significant challenge in terms of resource allocation and management.
  • Security Concerns: The proximity to the contested border with China adds a layer of complexity to the infrastructure development process.
  • Ensuring the security of the infrastructure projects and the workers involved is a major challenge.
  • Lack of Last-Mile Connectivity: While major highways and other connectivity improvements are being constructed, providing last-mile connectivity to the most forward posts is a significant challenge.

Related Government Initiatives

  • Inter-state Border Areas Development Programme (ISBADP): It aims to provide facilities for the socio-economic development of the people living along the Interstate boundary with Assam.
  • Projects taken up under this program are to ensure sustainability and provide value addition to any given product.
  • Border Areas Development Department (BADP): It is to meet the special developmental needs and well-being of the people living in remote and inaccessible areas situated near the International Boundary (IB).
  • The provision of essential infrastructure facilities and opportunities for sustainable living would help integrate these areas with the hinterland, create a positive perception of care by the country and encourage people to stay in the border areas, leading to safe and secure borders.
  • Infrastructure Development by Ministry of Home Affairs: It includes the construction of fences, floodlighting, roads, Border Out Posts (BOPs), Company Operating Bases (COBs), and deployment of technological solutions along the India-Pakistan, India-Bangladesh, India-China, India-Nepal, India-Bhutan, and India-Myanmar borders.
  • Vibrant Villages Programme: It has been instrumental in developing remote villages in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Under this programme, primary health centres and residences of school teachers are being upgraded, and concrete tracks are being laid.
  • It has brought about a significant improvement in the quality of life for the residents of these villages.


  • The development of infrastructure and connectivity along the LAC in Arunachal Pradesh is a testament to India’s commitment to securing its borders and improving the lives of its citizens in border areas. While challenges remain, the progress made so far is promising and sets the stage for a more connected and secure future.