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Supreme Court Grants Bail to Activist Shoma Sen

The article discusses Shoma Sen’s bail, her arrest under India’s Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act for alleged Maoist links and Bhima Koregaon violence. It explores legal debates on freedom, the Supreme Court’s ruling, and implications for activism.

What is the context?

Shoma Sen is a human rights activist and professor. She recently received bail after being in jail since June 2018. Police arrested her under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) for her alleged connections to Maoist groups and her involvement in inciting violence at the Bhima Koregaon event in Maharashtra.

What is the Bhima Koregaon Case ?

The Elgar Parishad event was a public gathering held on December 31, 2017, in Pune, India. The event was organized to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Bhima Koregaon (1818). This battle holds historical significance for Dalits, as a Dalit-led contingent in the British Army emerged victorious against the Peshwa forces. It was organized by a coalition of Dalit and Bahujan groups which drew a large crowd.

The event included speeches highlighting social justice issues and the Bhima Koregaon victory. The police allege inflammatory speeches at the Elgar Parishad incited violence at Bhima Koregaon. This connection forms the core of the legal case against the arrested activists. Shoma Sen was also arrested on suspicion of having Maoist links and causing the violence.

The arrests raised concerns about freedom of expression. Some argue that the activists’ speeches were legitimate dissent, while others believe they crossed the line. The use of a strict anti-terrorism law (UAPA) against them further fueled the debate.

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967

The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) is India’s stringent anti-terrorism legislation. It plays a significant role in cases like the Elgar Parishad and Bhima Koregaon incident. This law includes several key aspects that have been instrumental in the legal proceedings of the case.

  • The law defines a “terrorist act” as any action intending to threaten or undermine India’s unity, integrity, or security, instill terror in the population, cause significant disruption or damage to public property, or endanger human life.
  • It identifies and categorizes certain groups as “unlawful associations,” making membership in or support for these groups a punishable offense.
  • It authorizes the arrest and detention of individuals suspected of engaging in terrorist activities, aiming to prevent acts of terror.
  • It establishes strict criteria for bail in cases under this law, making it challenging to secure release. The court grants bail only when  the strong merit of the charges at first glance is available.
In the context of the Elgar Parishad case
  • The application of the law to detain these activists for an extended period without trial has sparked debate over the fairness and respect for due process. The recent granting of bail to Shoma Sen underlines the challenges posed by the law’s stringent bail conditions. It demonstrates the law’s profound impact on the rights and liberties of the accused.
Supreme Court’s Observations and Ruling

The Court granted bail to Shoma Sen and made some key points about the UAPA’s use in this case.

  • Lack of Evidence: The Court found the evidence against Sen insufficient to hold her under the UAPA’s definition of a terrorist act. Critics have targeted the UAPA for its broad definitions, which make it susceptible to misuse.
  • Right to Bail: The Court highlighted the importance of the right to bail. Supreme Court questioned why lower courts denied it based on the UAPA’s strict provisions. This emphasizes the need for careful application of anti-terrorism laws to prevent misuse against activists.
Why This Decision Matters ?

The Supreme Court’s decision is significant for several reasons:

  • Scrutiny of UAPA: This case shows the Court’s role in examining how UAPA is used. It ensures the law doesn’t restrict freedom of expression or lead to unfair detentions.
  • Hope for Other Activists: This ruling might set a legal precedent for other activists facing similar charges under UAPA. It offers them a basis to challenge its misuse.
  • Anti-Terrorism Law Debate: The case reignites discussions about India’s anti-terrorism laws.


The Supreme Court’s decision in the Elgar Parishad case highlights the delicate balance between national security and individual rights. It reminds us that the judiciary protects our constitutional rights. Laws meant to safeguard the nation shouldn’t be used to weaponize against its citizens. This case is a significant moment for India’s legal and human rights landscape, potentially influencing future UAPA applications and the treatment of dissent.

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