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Excavation Reveals Harappan Settlement in Kachchh

Context

  • A human skeleton, along with pottery artifacts and animal bones has been found on the slope of a hillock in a Gujarat village.

About

  • Archaeologists excavated a site called Padta Bet, which was 1.5 km from the mass burial ground of Juna Khatiya, an Early Harappan necropolis.
  • In 2018, archeologists unearthed a mass burial site with 500 graves on the outskirts of Khatiya village in Gujarat’s Kutch district which raised the question of whose graves are these?
  • The latest find bolsters the theory that the graveyard site may have served as a common facility for a cluster of several such smaller settlements.
  • The Archaeologists also found semi-precious stone beads made of carnelian and agate, terracotta spindle whorls, copper, lithic tools, cores and debitage, grinding stones, and hammer stones.

Harappan Civilization

  • The Harappan civilization is believed to be one of the oldest world civilizations together with Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • It was developed along the river Indus and for that reason, it is also known as the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The Harappan civilization is identified as a Bronze-age civilization because many objects have been found that are made up of copper-based alloys.

Major Features of Civilization

  • Urban Planning: Their towns were well-planned and they had brick houses that were situated along the roads.
  • Every house was equipped with a staircase, a kitchen, and several rooms.
  • Their courtyards had wells and bathrooms and they had proper drainage systems.
  • Ornaments: The Harappans wore ornaments made of gold, silver, ivory, shell, clay, semi-precious stones, and others.
  • Trade and Commerce: The civilization had extensive trade networks, reaching as far as Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, and the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Religion and Iconography: Harappan artifacts depict various symbols and motifs believed to be related to religious beliefs.
  • These include figures such as the “Priest King” and images of animals like bulls, suggesting possible reverence for certain animals.
  • Craftsmanship and Artistry: The Harappans produced intricate pottery, including the famous red pottery with black painted motifs.
  • They also created jewelry, sculptures, and seals made of steatite, terracotta, and other materials.
  • Agriculture: They cultivated crops such as wheat, barley, peas, and cotton.
  • Social Organization: The society was likely stratified, with evidence suggesting a hierarchical structure. This is indicated by variations in housing sizes and the presence of public buildings.
  • Decline and Disappearance: The reasons for the decline of the Harappan Civilization are still debated among historians and archaeologists.
  • Possible factors include ecological changes, such as shifts in river courses, as well as invasions and internal conflicts.

Major Harappan

                           Harappa                                                    Punjab, Pakistan
Mohenjo-Daro                     Sindh, Pakistan
Dholavira                              Kutch district of Gujarat
Sites                                Present Day
Kalibangan                          Rajasthan
Lothal                          Gujarat
Rakhigarhi                        Haryana
Chanhudaro                         Sindh, Pakistan
Ganweriwala                          Punjab, Pakistan
Sutkagendor                                      Baluchistan Province, Pakistan
  Alamgirpur                             Uttar Pradesh

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