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Employment scenario in India grim

The article discusses the ‘India Employment Report 2024’ by ILO, highlighting rising youth unemployment, skills gaps, gender disparities, and global employment trends, underscoring challenges and disparities in labour markets.

What is the Context?

The ‘India Employment Report 2024’ by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) revealed alarming statistics regarding youth unemployment in India. The report emphasized the increasing challenge faced by educated individuals in securing employment opportunities.

Key Findings:
  • A striking 83% of India’s unemployed population comprises young individuals, underscoring the pressing issue of youth unemployment.
  • The labour market has witnessed paradoxical improvements in certain indicators over the last two decades. However, the primary concern remains the inadequate growth of non-farm sectors, limiting their ability to absorb agricultural workers.
  • The report highlighted a significant skills gap among the Indian youth, with many lacking basic digital proficiency like sending emails or using spreadsheets.
  • There exists a substantial gender disparity in the labour market, with female labour force participation rates remaining notably low.
World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2024
  • Working Poverty: Despite a decline since 2020, the number of workers living in extreme and moderate poverty surged in 2023.
  • Global Unemployment: The global unemployment rate slightly improved to 5.1% in 2023. However, projections indicate a rise to 5.2% in 2024, with an additional two million job-seekers globally.
  • Resilience Amid Challenges: Global labour markets have demonstrated resilience amidst economic adversities, with enhancements in unemployment rates and jobs gap rates.
  • Income Inequality: A widening income gap and declining disposable incomes in most G20 nations challenge economic recovery and societal well-being.
  • Gender Disparities: Despite some recovery in women’s labour force participation, gender gaps persist, particularly in emerging economies.
  • Informal Work: The prevalence of informal work remains unchanged, signifying a substantial vulnerable employment sector globally.
  • Productivity Challenges: Labour productivity, post a brief pandemic-induced surge, has reverted to lower levels, impacted by skill deficits and the predominance of major digital corporations.
  • Wage Trends in G20: India and Turkey exhibit positive real wage trends compared to other G20 nations, reflecting distinct economic dynamics and policy influences.
  • Structural Workforce Concerns: The observed imbalances may be entrenched, jeopardizing livelihoods and business sustainability. Rectifying issues like declining living standards and feeble productivity is imperative for sustainable growth and equitable social outcomes.
 International Labour Organisation (ILO)

ILO was established in 1919 post World War I under the Treaty of Versailles. The ILO aims to promoting social justice as a cornerstone for enduring global peace. Transitioning to a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946, the ILO uniquely operates as a tripartite entity, incorporating representatives from governments, employers, and workers in its decision-making.

  • With 187 member states, including India, the ILO addresses global labour and employment challenges. India holds a significant position as a founding member and assumed the Chairmanship of the ILO’s Governing Body in 2020.
  • It headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.  The ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969 for its commendable efforts in championing decent work, worker justice, and fostering international peace and collaboration.

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